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Monday, August 29, 2016

What is Serve Humanity Serve God ? Who are We ?

What is Serve Humanity Serve God ? Who are We ? 

Serve Humanity Serve God is a team of volunteers provides help to those poor and needy patients who cannot afford to pay for their medical treatment. “We ‘adopt’ these people and help them with everything they need — be it a Dialysis, an MRI, a CT Scan, Provide free medicines, an operation, or anything else. The small team raises money by speaking to people across the city — friends, acquaintances, family, strangers – anyone who can help them with funds. It is mostly by word of mouth that donors reach to us.
We also took responsibility of children staying in the compound and take them out on vacations or weekends.
PGI Chandigarh has many poor patients coming from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Nepal. They stay at the gurdwara compound for months, and some, for years. Many such patients come along with their families, including children. About 2,500-3,000 persons including patients and their family members take food at the gurdwara community kitchen daily.
To join in donations please contact: 
  1. Amarjit Singh - 90419-22099 (Chandigarh) India
  2. Navjot Sidhu - 87280-00333 (Chandigarh) India
  3. Sherry - 425-306-6831(Seattel) USA
  4. Hardeep Gill - 916-538-8107(California) USA
  5. Mandeep Malhi - 647-709-0096 (Canada)
  6. Sunny Grewal - 61-402-906-576 (Australia)

Follow Serve Humanity Serve God on Social Media

Hashtags on Social Media: #ServeHumanityServeGod

Friday, May 20, 2016

IBM Smart City Solutions - Rashtrapati Bhavan would be transformed into a smart township

IBM to transform Rashtrapati Bhavan into smart township

Rashtrapati Bhavan would be transformed into a smart township with the help of IBM Smart City Solutions.IBM on Thursday announced that its smart city solutions have been deployed for the digital transformation of the Presidential Estate. “Spread across 330 acres of land and home to over 5,000 residents, the self-sustained Presidential Estate is adopting IBM’s technology and solutions to become future ready.

The Intelligent Operations Center addresses challenges that are inherent to townships - water supply, security, electrical infrastructure and solid waste management,” said an IBM statement.“The transformation of the estate into a smart township is customized to further enhance the efficiency of critical infrastructure and utilities,” it added.The partnership to reimagine the Rashtrapati Bhavan in the digital age was announced at an event graced by President Pranab Mukherjee. A citizens mobile app, created by IBM Intelligent Operations Center (IOC), was also launched, which allows residents to report issues using the web and mobile. “Rashtrapati Bhavan is an iconic representation of India’s smart city vision. It is a proud moment for all of us and the beginning of a great journey. We are honored to be their partner in enabling this transformation,” said Vanitha Narayanan, MD, IBM India.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Types Of Routing Tables In Junos

Juniper Network Operating System (JUNOS) maintains different types of routing tables for clear separation of different types of routes. Each routing table populates a portion of forwarding table and thus the forwarding table is partitioned based on routing table. The routing table in Juniper Network Operating System or JUNOS contains all the information known by that router and routing protocol puts the different routes in the routing table for single destination. Further the routing table places the best route in the packet forwarding engine (PFE).

Below is the list of different types of routing tables created by Junos. They are as follows:
1. Inet.0: This table stores the IPv4 unicast routes. This is equivalent to global routing table in CISCO.

2. Inet.1: This table stores the multicast routes. This table stores the (S,G) entries. This is equivalent to mroute table of CISCO.

3. Inet.2: This table is used for unicast RPF (Reverse Path Forwarding). For subsequent address family indicator (SAFI) 2 routes, when multiprotocol BGP (MBGP) is enabled. This table stores unicast routes that are used for multicast reverse-path-forwarding (RPF) lookup. The routes in this table can be used by the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), which requires a specific RPF table. In contrast, Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) does not need this table because it can perform RPF checks against the inet.0 table. You can import routes from inet.0 into inet.2 using routing information base (RIB) groups, or install routes directly into inet.2 from a multicast routing protocol.

4. Inet.3: For IPv4 MPLS. This table stores the egress address of an MPLS label-swiched path (LSP), the LSP name, and the outgoing interface name. This routing table is used only when the local device is the ingress node to an LSP.

5. Inet6.0: This table stores the IPv6 Unicast routes.

6. Bgp.l2vpn.0: This table stores the L2VPN learned routes.

7. Bgp.l3vpn.0: This table stores the L3VPN learned routes.

8. Mpls.0: For MPLS label switching operations. This table is used when the local device is a transit router.

9. Iso.0: For IS-IS routes. When you are using IS-IS to support IP routing, this table contains only the local device’s network entity title (NET).

10. Juniper_Private: For Junos OS to communicate internally between the Routing Engine and PIC hardware.


Juniper JET Automation Framework

JET is a framework which means all the features ties together that enables JUNOS to be more open and programmable.

There are four big components of JET
1. Python: Python 2.7.8 is supported on all JUNOS devices. By using Python users can develop and execute Python scripts on JUNOS.

2. JSON: JSON is popular data exchange program because of it’s simplicity, light weight and rich native support in several programming languages. Most of the python programmers use JSON as data exchange program. With this help now JUNOS operational show commands can display data in JSON format also along with XML format. JUNOS configuration can be provided directly in JSON format which can help programmer to write code in python and push configuration on box without having worry of XML.

3. Fast Programmatic Configuration Database: It is fast programmatic configuration database used by JUNOS and gives access to controller’s applications which are pushing fast state changes onto JUNOS. SDN applications can make the changes at very high rate with 1000 of configuration changes per second with no configuration validation. The onus of configuration validation will be taken care by the external SDN controllers and applications.

4. JET API: SDN requires programmable interface for fast rate of configuration changes with multiple instance of databases without the contention of database resources. JET APIs are AVATAR of JUNOS SDK which enables APP developer to program the JUNOS control and data plane. JET APIs constitutes of 5 things as mentioned below
a. Route
b. Interface
c. Firewall
d. Management APIs
e. Notifications

JET APIs framework is language and Operating System agnostic which means APP developer can use any of the language and OS of their own choice. The APPS which are written will be binary compatible and decoupled from the JUNOS releases. All the APIs exposed externally by JET will be used internally as well.


Monday, April 11, 2016


IBM AND EVRY With a Billion Kroner Partnership 

Global cloud platform on Norwegian soil

EVRY has enticed IBM to invest several billion kroners in a super center at Fet. Hence, Norway is connected to the world’s sole global cloud infrastructure.

- This is an extremely important partnership for us, says Matt Milton, responsible for the EVRY partnership in IBM.

This is the first time IBM builds a data center that is part of the IT giant ’s global cloud infrastructure together with a partner. IBM has built t he remaining 46 data centers by themselves , and are strategically located in all corners of t he world .

The global cloud platform is based on technology from SoftLayer that IBM bought for almost 2 billion dollars in 2013.
- To gather we invest several billion dollars, continues Milton. EVRY’s contribution is 500 million kroners, the rest of the bill is picked up by IBM. It would probably not be a SoftLayer center on Norwegian or Nordic soil if EVRY had not contributed.

“Future Proof” picks up speed

In 2012 while EVRY’s core customers struggled with unstable IT platforms and the IT corporation struggled to give the shareholders value as sto ck exchange listed companies, t he CEO at the time Terje Mjøs launched the concept “Future Proof”.

Mjøs planned a data centre of the future, built at Fet outside of Oslo with modern, standardised, virtualised and automated infrastructure.

The new IT platform should easily be able to connect to the customers’ data centres and to commercial clou d platforms such as Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services.

However, it has taken longer to complete Future Proof than planned.

- We do this to more rapidly achieve our goal with Future Proof, says CTO Bjørnar Engebretsen in EVRY.

All but one

- Why did you choose IBM’s technology?
- We looked at different models. The determining factor was that we would get all technology and all services that we needed from one service provider if we chose IBM, replies Engebretsen.
It is the Digiplex building that is to house the new center. The actual content will gradually be built during the spring, and the data center will be in full production this autumn.

Engebretsen says that it will initially be set up 10,000 servers at Fet. The CTO underlines that it is e asy to double the amount if need be.

To be able to industrialize and automise the IT deliveries, all SoftLayer centers are identical on the inside. The interior in the data center at Fet has therefore gone through minor modifications in order to become identical to the other 46 data centers.

IT operation for 6 billion 
Engebretsen says that EVRY is in the process to prepare 200 customers for the new SoftLayer platform.

With a center on Norwegian soil , EVRY is able to offer cloud ser vices to customers that due to regulatory reasons require that the data is located in Norway. This applies especially to customers in the public sector and in the bank and finance sector, which comprises one half and approximately one third of the revenue respectively. 

EVRY ’s total revenue today is 12 billion kroners in Norway, where approximately half of this is operations.
When Fet is connected to the global SoftLayer cloud, EVRY’s service offerings to companies with a global presence will increase. Now they can store data in centers relatively close to their local offices no matter where it is in the world.

Access to Watson 
- The goal with the new data center is to become a more important IT partner for our customers, says Engebretsen.
In addition to delivering operation services from a cloud platform, EVRY has developed its own user portal customized to the individual customer as a part of Future Proof. Now IBM takes over the production of this service, and will develop new services for the cloud platform.

EVRY’s customers will in addition get access to IBM’s services and applications collected under the Bluemix umbrella. This includes access to solutions that builds on the self - learning super - machine Watson. 

As a par t of the IBM - EVRY contract, IBM acquired 332 employees from EVRY on the 1 st of December last year. The former EVRY employees are gathered in the newly created IBM Services.

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Save the Internet: Tell TRAI We Need Network Neutrality

Save the Internet: Tell TRAI We Need Network Neutrality 

Emails should be sent to 

Please bcc us at & 

We will try to ensure that your response is acknowledged by TRAI. 

Click Here for Email Format 

The purpose is to assist supporters of strong net neutrality in articulating their own views on the matter in a legally precise manner, in order to submit a response to the TRAI before the deadline on 24 April 2015.

We appeal to parliamentarians and political leaders to keep this campaign apolitical. Citizens: demand a free and open internet. Contact your MP now. 

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Nmap Project Seeking Talented Programmers for Google Summer of Code

Nmap Project Seeking Talented Programmers for Google Summer of Code

Hi folks.  I'm delighted to report that Nmap has been accepted by Google to participate in this year's Summer of Code internship program.  This innovative and extraordinarily generous program provides $5,500 stipends to college and graduate students anywhere in the world who spend the summer improving Nmap from home! They gain valuable experience, get paid, strengthen their résumés, and write code for millions of users.  We're one of the few orgs which have participated every year since the program began, and we're quite excited for our eleventh year!

Previous SoC students helped create the Nmap Scripting Engine, Zenmap GUI, and the handy Ncat and Nping utilities.  Several of them became top developers!  We're hoping for the same this year, but we need your help to get the word out! If you know any college/grad students (or are one) who
might be interested, please point them to our project ideas page: 

You must hurry though, as applications are due this Friday at 19:00 UTC. We're absolutely forbidden from accepting any late applications.  You can start an application now though and improve it up until the deadline.

Applications can be submitted using the orange "Log in" button (under "Students", not "Mentors and Administrators") at


PS: In Nmap news.  We were so busy coding that we forgot to announce our
Nmap 6.46 and 6.47 releases last year.  But they're available at .  And we're also working on a very big
release expected in the next month or two!

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

How To - Layer 3 Routing Loop Poblem - Split Horizon and Route Poisoning

Most of the time, I always be a part of layer 2 routing loop discussion but never heard about the engineers talking about layer 3 routing loop problem. This is being experienced during my recent visit in some company where all engineers knows why to use Spanning Tree Protocol but none of them knew why to use split horizon and route poisoning. 

In layer 3 networks, there might chance of routing loops and split horizon, hold down timers and route poisoning are the techniques which help to prevent the layer 3 routing loop. Below depicted Figure 1 is showing the converge network. Let’s assume in case of failure of network, router C will forward the update to router B and router B will forward the update to router A and router C as well. By doing this the same kind of the update which is being generated by C is received and C might think that he is getting the information of network from B but In fact, network is directly attached to router C. This situation can arise in smaller networks too.

The first work around is the split horizon technique which says not to send the updates to the interfaces from it has been received. It looks like send update information (Number of interfaces – Receiving Interface Updates).
Next one is route poisoning, when the router detects link down, the attached router sends the update to its neighbors. But in this case, the receiving router can send back the received information to the same interface from where it received by setting the route metric to maximum. Definitely this is the violation of split horizon rule but it helps router to understand about that particular network is down or inaccessible which actually help the convergence of routing. Now is poisoned route which is having the maximum metric assigned as the route is not reachable. When the neighbor send the route back to the originator, it becomes reverse poisoned.

What does route poisoning do?
1. Set the hop count to an unreachable state as soon as the failed network is detected
2. Route remains poisoned until the hold-down timer expires.
3. Hold timer depends on the routing protocol; Every protocol is having different hold-down timer.
4. Only uni direction traffic flow.
5. If the route is not back up during the hold down time period expires, that route is removed from the routing table and added in the garbage table.

The last one is Hold Down timers. What does hold-timers do?
1. A router receives an update from a neighbor indicating that a network that previously was accessible is now no longer accessible.
2. The receiving router marks that route possibly down and starts the hold-down timer.
3. If an update with a better metric for that network is received from any neighboring router during the hold-down period, the network is reinstated and the hold-down timer is removed.
4. If an update from any other neighbor is received during the hold-down period with the same or worse metric for that network, that update is ignored. Thus, more time is allowed for the information about the change to be propagated.
5. Routers still forward packets to destination networks that are marked as possibly down. This allows the router to overcome any issues associated with intermittent connectivity. If the destination network truly is unavailable and the packets are forwarded, black hole routing is created and lasts until the hold-down timer expires. (Very Important Point). This could be the reason, administrators look forward to reduce the hold-down timers to increase the convergence time. Definitely if the network is not stable these timers generates lot of messages.

As per section 2.2.2, RFC 1058 explicitly says that “Split horizon with poisoned reverse will prevent any routing loops that involve only two gateways. However, it is still possible to end up with patterns in which three gateways are engaged in mutual deception.” Definitely this could be the case of broadcast of multi-access networks.

Monday, March 2, 2015

Switching Interview Questions - Layer 2 Interview Questions

Switching Interview Questions - Layer 2 Interview Questions 

After IGPBGP and MPLS interview question, Now I am adding switching basic questions. Please read the below questions:-

1. Difference between hub, bridge and switch?
2. What is mac address and why it is required?
3. In layer 2 domain do we need ip address for communication?
4. What is arp and why it is required?
5. What is Spanning Tree Protocol aka STP?
6. What is the difference between STP, MSTP, PVST and RSTP?
7. Can we use the two same paths for same vlan?
8. What is the difference between broadcast and collision domain?
9. Define type of lan traffic.
10. What is destination address of broadcast frame?
11. Can we connect a switch to switch with straight cable?
12. Define functions of switch.
13. What is arp timeout?
14. What is aging process?
15. What is BPDU?
16. What is path cost?
17. Define selection criteria of STP root bridge.
18. How to non bridge decide which port will elect as root port?
19. If a nonroot bridge has two redundant ports with the same root path cost, how does the bridge choose which port will be the root port?
20. Port states of spanning tree protocol.
21. If the users face delay during initial login, what you will suggest to implement?
22. Why spanning tree BPDU filter is used?
23. Can I use BPDU filter on trunk ports?
24. What is port security?
25. I want to learn only a single mac from the port, what need to be configured?
26. Can we use spanning port-fast on trunk ports?
27. If management ip address is changed, will user’s traffic will be dropped?
28. Difference between trunk and access port?
29. What is UDLD and why it is required?
30. What is interface vlan on switch?
31. How to perform inter vlan routing without layer 3 device?
32. How to stop superior bpdu participating in switching domain?
33. How Vlan In Local Switching Domain is selected?
34. How to provide redundancy to MPLSVPN customer?

Sunday, March 1, 2015

MPLS Interview Questions for CCNA and CCNP Engineers

MPLS Interview Questions for CCNA and CCNP Engineers 

After IGP and BGP questions, I prepared basic list of MPLS interview questions which could help you to clear your next level. In the up coming post, I will be covering switching. Below is the list of questions:-

1. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS?
2. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time?
3. What is the protocol used by MPLS?
4. MPLS works on which layer?
5. What is the difference between P and PE router?
6. Can I make my PE router as P?
7. Two routers are having 4 equal cost links, how many ldp sessions will be established?
8. My LDP router id, OSPF router id and BGP router id is different, will it work to forward the traffic of customers or not?
9. What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required? Which router performs the PHP function?
10. I am receiving aggregate label, what does it mean?
11. What are the different types of labels?
12. How to make customer route unique?
13. What is the difference between RD and RT?
14. Can I assign a same RD to two different customers?
15. Is RD travels in route update?
16. My customer is having three branches and all are attached to three different PEs, In this case can I use the different vrf names?
17. What is downstream on demand?
18. How to filter MPLS labels?
19. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco routers? How to extend that range?
20. Without route reflector can I implement MPLS?
21. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address family?
22. What is MP-iBGP? Can we use normal BGP in lieu of MP-iBGP?
23. What is LIB, LFIB?
24. What is CEF and without enabling CEF, can we make MPLS work?
25. I am receiving end to end customer routes on various PE but not able to ping those routes, what’s could be the problem?
26. What is explicit null and implicit null?
27. Default timers of LDP?
28. Does LDP require OSPF, IS-IS or BGP?
29. In neighbor discovery command, I am receiving only xmit, what does it mean?
30. What is transport address?
31. What is the RFC of MPLS?
32. Why MPLS is called multi protocol?
33. What is the difference between MPLS, SSL and IPSec?
34. I am using different vendor products and want to implement TDP, what type of challenges will you face?
35. Does MPLS support IPv6?
36. Can I use the existing IPv4 MPLS backbone for IPv6?
37. Define various troubleshooting commands in MPLS?
38. What is forward equivalence class aka FEC?
39. What is adjacency table?
40. Difference between MPLS IP and MPLS Label Protocol LDP command?
41. If MPLS get disable, will it harm my IGP or IPv4 traffic?
Click here for answers
42. What is MPLS-TP?
43. What is downstream and upstream router in MPLS? 44. Difference between MPLS and MPLS-TP?
45. How Does LDP Initializes?
46. What is Cell Mode MPLS Over ATM?
47. Difference Between VC Based Multiplexing And Logical Link Control Encapsulation in ATM?
48. Basics of ATM?
49. ATM is packet or circuit switching?
50. Is LDP Required for VPNv4 Labels?
51. What will happen if you see your PE loopback in vpnv4 table?
52. What is Bidirectional Forwarding Detection?
53. Different types of PseudoWire?
54. Modes of EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
55. What is L2VPN Over Metro Ethernet?
56. What is E-VPN(Ethernet VPN)?
57. what is FEC in traditional IP routing and MPLS?
58. How does CEF understand overlapping of ip addresses ?
59. What is the difference between Optimum, Fast and CEF Switching?
60. Advantages of MPLS.
61. Define CEF FIB table entries.

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